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Classify UPS load and load type

2019-04-26 Business No comment

Few people would think that as global energy demand continues to increase, older power supply infrastructures are growing, and demand for uninterruptible power supplies [UPS] is rising. But why do you need to classify the power protection load type?

First, the business manager must assess the importance of UPS load to operational continuity in the event of a power outage. Typically, uninterruptible power loads are classified as critical, necessary and non-essential.

Another important assessment of the UPS system design phase is how these loads work together, ie which loads affect other loads?

For example, in the retail business, computer load can affect other systems that are part of facility management. This may include security cameras, access control systems, elevators, escalators, PoS terminals, kiosks, ATMs, etc. In the warehousing business, computer load can also have a significant impact on the ability of the business to process inbound and outbound cargo. All of these factors need to be considered when assessing the criticality of a UPS load.

UPS loads also need to be classified according to their electrical consumption and their impact on the electrical system; they are capacitive, inductive or resistive. This will affect the size and type of UPS system to be installed.

Load the category. Critical loads directly affect the ability of the organization to operate and must remain operational or in an orderly manner in the event of a primary power failure to prevent system crashes, data loss or damage, and shorten the life of hardware damage. When the main power source is contaminated, their daily operations are also interrupted.

The base load provides ancillary support services that may be needed for health and safety reasons or to maintain ambient temperature. Although an alternate form is required in the event of a primary power failure, they do not require an uninterruptible power supply and can allow the generator [or alternate backup system] to fail or ride for the required time to start. Examples include air conditioning, heating and emergency lighting.

The non-essential load is the load that the organization can withstand when the main power fails. For example, general lighting and non-essential printing services.

Some critical loads, especially sensitive medical and scientific equipment, require stringent voltage and frequency regulation, which can only be achieved with a continuously operating inverter of an online UPS. The basic load does not require the power quality provided by the UPS and can be powered directly from the generator. This will reduce the overall size of the UPS. Non-essential loads do not require any power protection at all.

The impact of critical UPS loads on the electrical system. In terms of type, UPS loads are referred to as linear or non-linear, depending on how they draw current from the mains waveform. They will be inductors, capacitors or resistors.

An inductive load is a load whose waveform lags behind a voltage waveform and has a potentially high surge current at startup. Examples of this type of load are SMPS [the most common form of power unit used today and the type of computer load behind today's most power hungry data centers], transformers or motors. This may be tempted by soft start facilities.

Capacitive load is the load that causes a potentially high surge current in the voltage waveform at startup. An example of this is the latest high-end server technologies, such as the Blade of Edge Servers.

A resistive load is a load that has no inductance or capacitance, such as a resistive load test set heater element, where the device typically does not have an initial turn-on surge and the current drawout cost immediately reaches a steady state of operation.

Whether the load is an inductor, a capacitor or a resistor will determine its power factor, which in itself will greatly affect the overall size of the UPS and generator [or alternative power source for the backup power source] to be installed. By convention, an inductive load is defined as positive reactive power and a capacitive load is defined as negative reactive power. However, the power factor never appears to be positive or negative; instead, it appears as hysteresis or preamble.

Evaluating load types, how they work together and their impact on current is critical to properly adjusting and designing UPS solutions for maximum power protection and value for money. Expertise such as Riello UPS, whose business is fully understanding UPS load and load type, can not be ignored. For more details, see the great books in the UPS – Power Protection Guide.

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