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Computer History

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Early computers

The history of computers can be traced back to the 20th century. In fact, computers have existed for more than 5,000 years.

In ancient times, "computer" (or "computer") was a person who conducted numerical calculations under the direction of a mathematician.

Some of the better known devices used are Abacus or Antikythera mechanisms.

Before and after 1725, Basile Bouchon used perforated paper on the loom to determine the pattern to be reworked on the fabric. This ensures that the patterns are always the same and that there are serious human errors.

Later, in 1801, Joseph Jaccard (1752 to 1834) used the idea of ​​punching cards to make the automation of more devices a great success. [19950007]

The first computer?

Charles Babbage 's. (1792 to 1871), over his time and using the idea of ​​punching, he developed the first computing device that will be used for scientific purposes. He invented the difference engine of Charles Babbage, who got into trouble in 1823 but never completed it. Later he began to study the analysis engine, which was designed in 1842.

Babbage was also invented to calculate concepts such as conditional branching, iterative loops, and index variables.

Ada Lovelace (1815-1852) is a Babbage Academy and founder of Scientific Computing.

Many people made improvements to Babbageventions. George Scheutz and his son Edvard Scheutz started working on a smaller version. By 1853 they built a machine that could handle 15 digits and calculate fourth-order differences.

The first noteworthy commercial use (and success) of the computer is the U.S. Census Bureau, which uses the punching device designed by Herman Hollerith as the 1890 census listing data.

In order to make up for the Census Bureau's periodicity of its machine needs, Hollerith founded the Watchmaker Company (1896), which was one of three companies that merged into IBM in 1911.

Claude Shannon (1916 – 2001) first proposed the use of digital electronics in computers and built the first computer in 1937, which can solve 29 simultaneous equations of 29 unknowns . But this device is not programmable

In these troubled times, the computer has developed rapidly. However, due to restrictions, many projects have been kept secret. Until a long time later, a notable example was the British military “Colossus” developed by Alan Turing and his team in 1943.

At the end of 1940, the United States Army commissioned John V. Mogley to develop a device for calculating ballistics during the Second World War. It turned out that the machine was only ready in 1945, but electronic digital integrator and computer or ENIAC proved to be a turning point in the history of the computer.

ENIAC proved to be a very efficient machine, but not a very easy to operate machine. Any change sometimes requires the device itself to be reprogrammed. Engineers are aware of this obvious problem and they have developed a "storage program architecture."

John von Neumann (Adviser to ENIAC), Mauchly and his team developed EDVAC, a new project that uses stored procedures.

Eckert and Mauchly later developed what could be described as the first commercially successful computer UNIVAC.

The software technology during this time is very primitive. The first program is written using machine code. By the 1950s, programmers were using a symbolic representation called assembly language, and then manually converted symbolic representations into machine code. Later programs called assembly programs perform translation tasks.

The transistor era, the end of the inventor.

At the end of 1950, the valve-driven computer ended. Use transistor-based computers because they are smaller, cheaper, faster, and more reliable.

The company, not the inventor, is now producing new computers.

Some of the more familiar ones are:

  • TRADIC at Bell Laboratories in 1954,
  • TX-0
  • IBM 704 and its successors at MIT Lincoln Laboratory, 709 and 7094. The latter introduces the I / O processor to increase the throughput between I / O devices and main memory
  • The first supercomputer, Livermore Atomic Research Computer (LARC) and IBM 7030 (aka Stretch) [19659026] Texas Instruments Advanced Scientific Computer TI-ASC

Now that the basics of the computer are in place, the transistor's computer is faster, and using the stored program architecture, you can use the computer for almost any operation.

New high-level programs are coming soon, FORTRAN (1956), ALGOL (1958) and COBOL (1959), Cambridge University and University of London co-developed CPL (Combined Programming Language, 1963). Martin Richards of the University of Cambridge developed a subset of the CPL called BCPL (Basic Computer Programming Language, 1967).

In 1969, after the CDC 7600 was released, it could perform 10 million floating point operations (10 Mflops) per second.


Internet age

Since 1985, the competition is about to install as many transistors as possible on a single computer. Each of them can do a simple operation. But apart from being faster and capable of performing more operations, computers have not grown too much.

The concept of parallel processing has been applied more widely since the 1990s.

In the field of computer networks, wide-area networks (LANs) and the rapid development of LAN technologies

obtain more detailed history of computers []].

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